Cm in brief new research from the past fortnight 12

The benefits of antioxidants in reducing the risk of AMD; promising benefits of omega-3 for sufferers of mild cognitive impairment; and the use of Lactobacillus reteuri to inhibit Helicobacter pylori are among the research into CM that we are looking at this fortnight.   Lutein, zeaxanthin and fish moderate risk of AMD A diet rich in lutein, zeaxanthin and fish may help to protect against the development of age-related macular-degeneration (AMD) with a high genetic risk according to researchers in Australia.  In a study published in Ophthalmology researchers examined whether a diet high in lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, zinc and omega-3 fatty acids modified the risk of AMD. Using participants from the Blue Mountains Eye Study and Rotterdam Study, AMD genetic risk was classified as either low or high. Participant’s dietary intake of the target nutrients were estimated from food frequency questionnaires. What they found was a significant interaction between AMD genetic risk status and lutein and zeaxanthin. In patients with a high genetic risk, lutein and zeaxanthin was associated with a >20% reduced risk of early AMD, while eating fish regularly each week saw a 40% reduced risk of late AMD. Omega-3 supplements for mild cognitive impairment Supplementing with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil, may help to attenuate telomeric shortening seen in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), according to new research coming out of Australia.   Excessive shortening of the telomeric ends of chromosomes is a marker associated with accelerated aging, and it is thought that nutritional deficiencies may be a contributing factor in this process.  In this randomised controlled pilot study, 33 adults over 65 years of age with MCI were split into 3 groups and supplemented daily for 6 months with either: • Omega-3 EPA 1.67g + DHA 0.16g (n = 12) • Omega-3 DHA 1.55 g + 0.40 g EPA (n = 12) • Omega-6 linolenic acid 2.2g (n= 9) While the results didn’t show any lengthening of the telomeres, the omega-3 groups demonstrated less shortening of the telomeres when compared with the omega-6 group. In addition, in the DHA group, increased DHA in red blood cells was associated with reduced telomere shortening.  Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits growth of helicobacter pylori and reduces antibiotic side-effects In a recent study published in the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology researchers investigated the role of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 in Helicobacter pylori infection. 100 patients with diagnosed H.pylori infections took part in this prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Split into 2 groups of 50, patients received either L. reuteri combination or placebo during a 3-phase study; pre-eradication, eradication and follow-up.  The L. reuteri group showed a 13% decrease in the pre-eradication phase, compared to 4% in the placebo group (measured by C urea breath test). During the eradication phase the placebo group reported a significant increase on the Gastrointestinal Rating Scale, more side effects and abnormal values for gastrin-17 (G17). The eradication rate (confirmed 8 weeks following the completion of treatment) was 75% in the L. reuteri group versus 65.9% in the placebo group. The researchers found that “L. reuteri combination alone is able to exert an inhibitory effect on H. pylori growth, and when administered with eradication therapy, it determines a significant reduction in antibiotic-associated side effects.” “Moreover, L. reuteri combination was able to decrease serum G17 levels and to (not significantly) increase the H. pylori-eradication rate.” Vitamin B12 supplementation improves symptoms of depression Patients currently being treated for depression could benefit from taking a vitamin B12 supplement according to a study published in the Open Neurology Journal.  With earlier research identified by the authors, linking B12 deficiency and depressive symptoms, the objective of this trial was to investigate whether or not supplementing B12 alongside SSRIs would improve these symptoms. Patients with low normal B12 levels (between 190 and 300 pg/ml) were either randomised to a treatment group or control.  After a 3 month follow-up 100% of the treatment group showed improvement in their HAM-D (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression) score, versus 69% of the control group.  The authors concluded that supplementing with vitamin B12 alongside current anti-depressant medication, could improve symptoms in patients suffering from depression.  Toddler’s milk vs cow’s milk for kid’s nutrition Giving children growing up milks (GUM) can reduce the risk of iron and vitamin D deficiency in young children according to research in Ireland.  Two groups of children aged 12 to 24 months were involved in the study- those that drank cow’s milk together with GUM and those that drank cow’s milk only.  When compared with the cow’s milk only group, children’s intake of carbohydrate, dietary fibre, iron, zinc, vitamins C and D were higher when they consumed GUM. While intakes for protein, fat, carbohydrates were either adequate or in line with recommendations in children in both groups; there was a high proportion of children not getting an adequate daily intake of iron and vitamin D in the group of children that drank cow’s milk only. 

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